CANNABINOIDS AND EPILEPSY AGOSTO 2018

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1. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug

Cannabidiol as a suggested candidate for treatment of autism spectrum disorder.

Poleg S(1), Golubchik P(2), Offen D(3), Weizman A(4).

Author information: 
(1)Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah - Tikvah,
Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
(2)Child and Adolescent Outpatient Clinic, Geha Mental Health Center, Petah
-Tikvah, Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv,
Israel.
(3)Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah - Tikvah,
Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; Sagol
School of Neuroscience, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel.
(4)Felsenstein Medical Research Center, Tel Aviv University, Petah - Tikvah,
Israel; Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel;
Research Unit, Geha Mental Health Center, Petah - Tikva, Israel. Electronic
address: Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo..

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by persistent deficits in social 
communication, restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or
activities and often intellectual disabilities. ASD has a number of prevalent
co-morbidities, such as sleep disorders, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
and epilepsy. No effective treatment for the core symptoms of ASD is currently
available. There is increasing interest in cannabinoids, especially cannabidiol
(CBD), as monotherapy or add-on treatment for the core symptoms and
co-morbidities of ASD. In this review we summarize the available pre-clinical and
clinical data regarding the safety and effectiveness of medical cannabis,
including CBD, in young ASD patients. Cannabidiol seems to be a candidate for the
treatment of ASD. At present, however, there are no convincing pre-clinical or
clinical data showing efficacy and safety of cannabinoid treatment in ASD
patients.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.



2. Epilepsy Behav. 2018 Aug
Acute foot-shock stress decreased seizure susceptibility against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizures in mice: Interaction between endogenous opioids and cannabinoids. Shirzadian A(1), Ostadhadi S(2), Hassanipour M(3), Shafaroodi H(4), Khoshnoodi M(4), Haj-Mirzaian A(4), Sharifzadeh M(5), Amiri S(6), Ghasemi M(7), Dehpour AR(8). Author information: (1)Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. (2)Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neurosciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. (3)Physiology-Pharmacology Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. (4)Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. (5)Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. (6)Regenerative Medicine Program, Department of Biochemistry and Medical Genetics, Max Rady College of Medicine, Rady Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada. (7)Department of Neurology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 01655, USA. (8)Experimental Medicine Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center, Neurosciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo.. BACKGROUND: Stressful conditions affect the brain's neurotransmission and neural pathways that are involved in seizure susceptibility. Stress alters the intensity and/or frequency of seizures. Although evidence indicates that chronic stress exerts proconvulsant effects and acute stress has anticonvulsant properties, the underlying mechanisms which mediate these effects are not well understood. In the present study, we assessed the role of endogenous opioids, endocannabinoids, as well as functional interaction between opioid and cannabinoid systems in the anticonvulsant effects of acute foot-shock stress (FSS) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures in mice. METHODS: Prolonged intermittent FSS was chosen as an acute stress model. Seizure threshold was determined after 30 min of stress induction in male Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice (20-30 g). Opioid and cannabinoid receptor antagonists were administered before animal placement in the FSS apparatus. RESULTS: Acute FSS significantly decreased seizure susceptibility in animals. The administration of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) antagonist, AM251, completely blocked the anticonvulsant effect of acute FSS at the doses of 1 pg/kg-100 μg/kg but not at 1 fg/kg. Pretreatment with the nonspecific opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (NTX), significantly inhibited the anticonvulsant effects of acute FSS at 1 and 2 mg/kg but not at 0.3 mg/kg. However, coadministration of the subeffective doses of AM251 (1 fg/kg) and NTX (0.3 mg/kg) reversed the anticonvulsant effects of acute FSS. CONCLUSIONS: Opioid and cannabinoid systems are involved in the anticonvulsant effects of acute FSS, and these neurotransmission systems interact functionally in response to acute FSS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 3. J AOAC Int. 2018 Aug A Brief Background on Cannabis: From Plant to Medical Indications. Klumpers LE(1)(2), Thacker DL(1)(3). Author information: (1)Tomori Pharmacology Inc., Denver, CO. (2)BIRD Life Sciences Consulting B.V., Delft, The Netherlands. (3)Thacker Consulting LLC, Crozet, VA. Cannabis has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years. As a result of centuries of breeding and selection, there are now over 700 varieties of cannabis that contain hundreds of compounds, including cannabinoids and terpenes. Cannabinoids are fatty compounds that are the main biological active constituents of cannabis. Terpenes are volatile compounds that occur in many plants and have distinct odors. Cannabinoids exert their effect on the body by binding to receptors, specifically cannabinoid receptors types 1 and 2. These receptors, together with endogenous cannabinoids and the systems for synthesis, transport, and degradation, are called the Endocannabinoid System. The two most prevalent and commonly known cannabinoids in the cannabis plant are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol. The speed, strength, and type of effects of cannabis vary based on the route of administration. THC is rapidly distributed through the body to fatty tissues like the brain and is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system to 11-hydroxy-THC, which is also psychoactive. Cannabis and cannabinoids have been indicated for several medical conditions. There is evidence of efficacy in the symptomatic treatment of nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, loss of appetite, Tourette's syndrome, and epilepsy. Cannabis has also been associated with treatment for glaucoma, Huntington's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and dystonia, but there is not good evidence to support its efficacy. Side effects of cannabis include psychosis and anxiety, which can be severe. Here, we provided a summary of the history of cannabis, its pharmacology, and its medical uses. 4. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug Cannabidiol in the Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. Tampaki EC(1)(2), Tampakis A(3), Pantos K(1). Author information: (1)National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece (2)Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo. (3)Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland 5. N Engl J Med. 2018 Aug 23;379(8):794. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1807878. Cannabidiol in the Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome. Feng L(1), Hoyland L(1)(2), Poulton A(3). Author information: (1)Nepean Hospital, Kingswood, NSW, Australia (2)Esta dirección de correo electrónico está siendo protegida contra los robots de spam. Necesita tener JavaScript habilitado para poder verlo..gov.au (3)University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia